As discussed in two blogposts in 2018, the Supreme People’s Court (SPC) has a yearly plan for drafting judicial interpretations, as set out in its 2007 regulations on judicial interpretation work. The plan is analogous to the legislative plans of the National People’s Congress (NPC) and its Standing Committee. Judicial interpretations, for those new to this blog, are binding on the SPC itself and the lower courts, and fill in some of the interstices of Chinese law (further explained here). On 29 April 2019, the SPC’s General Office issued a document with a list of 47 judicial interpretation projects, 36 with an end 2019 deadline (set out below), and 11 with a deadline set for the first half of 2020 (set out in this blogpost). The document details the projects for which the SPC judicial committee had given project initiation/approval (立项), designating one or more SPC divisions/offices with primary drafting responsibility (this process to be detailed in a forthcoming article). It appears to be the second time this type of document was publicly released. If so, it is a concrete step in increasing the SPC’s transparency. The projects, deadlines, and some brief comments (some longer than others) follow below. Some of the interpretations listed below are ones that Jiang Qibo, head of the Research Office, mentioned in 2018, as being linked to socialist core values (see my 2018 blogpost), although as I commented then, many are linked to the SPC’s need to “serve the greater situation” while at the same time seeking to deal with many of the difficult legal issues that face the courts.
(“Project initiation”/”project approval” is a procedure well-known to those of us who have been involved in foreign investment projects in China, where it involves approval from the planning authorities, primarily for infrastructure projects, but is an initial procedure used by regulatory authorities of all types, Party and state. For the SPC, it reflects one of the “planned economy” aspects of the way it operates.
Close observation reveals that some interpretations were listed last year, indicating that drafts were not ready for approval last year. Some of the reasons for slippage are likely to be:
- the issues turn out to be more complicated (substantively or otherwise);
- judges have less time to work on judicial interpretation drafting with an increased caseload and document study;
- many experienced SPC judges have been dispatched to circuit courts, leaving fewer at headquarters to work on judicial interpretations; and
- timing may also be a factor.
Deadline of end 2019
- Regulations on pre-filing property protection provisional measures (关于办理诉前财产保全案件适用法律若干问题的解释 ), a type of pre-filing injunction. These regulations are for non-intellectual property (IP) cases. Responsibility of the Case Filing Division.
- Provisions on Several Issues Concerning Preventing and Punishing False Lawsuits, Malicious Lawsuits, and Vexatious Litigation (关于防范和惩治虚假诉讼、恶意诉讼及无理缠诉若干问题的规定). Responsibility of the Case Filing Division.
- Provisions on Regulating the Execution of Death Penalties and Related Issues (关于规范死刑执行及相关问题的规定) (Responsibility of the #1 Criminal Division). The original deadline was the first half of this year. Apparently, this will focus on more setting out more detailed guidelines concerning how the death penalty is implemented, linked to the Criminal Procedure Law and the SPC’s interpretations of the Criminal Procedure Law;
- Interpretation of the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Handling of Criminal Cases Involving Corruption and Bribery (II) (最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于办理贪污贿赂等刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释（二). Responsibility of the #2 Criminal Division. It likely updates the 2016 interpretation to reflect the establishment and operation of the National Supervisory Commission and addressing issues that have arisen in practice. Issues to be covered likely include ones discussed in issued #106 of Reference to Criminal Trial (刑事审判参考，the journal of the SPC’s five criminal divisions, mentioned here). Responsibility of the #2 Criminal Division, but it is likely that the supervision commission will be/is one of the institutions providing input.
- Interpretation of the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate on Dereliction of Duty (II) (最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于办理渎职刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释（二）). Was on last year’s list with an end 2019 deadline. I noted last year that it was likely updating interpretation (I) in light of the anti-corruption campaign and the establishment of the National Supervision Commission. Issues likely flagged in Reference to Criminal Trial.
- . Interpretation on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Criminal Cases Involving Concealing and Harboring Criminals (关于审理窝藏、包庇刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释). These provisions occur in various parts of the Criminal Law and are also mentioned in the organized crime opinion discussed in this earlier blogpost. Drafting responsibility of the #4 Criminal Division;
- Interpretation on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases Involving Restrictions on Commutation of Suspended Death Penalties (关于审理死刑缓期执行限制减刑案件适用法律若干问题的解释), Interpretation on limiting commutation during the period of the suspension of death sentences. See related research in English and Chinese. The #5 Criminal Division is responsible for this.
- Interpretation on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases Involving Enforcement Objection Actions (关于审理执行异议之诉案件适用法律若干问题的解释). It previously had a deadline of the end of 2018, related to the campaign to basically resolve enforcement difficulties within two to three years. Drafting this is a task for the #1 Civil Division. A draft of this interpretation was issued for public comment on 30 November (the draft and details of how to submit comments found here.)
- Interpretation on Evidence in Civil Procedure, Responsibility of the #1 Civil Division (关于民事诉讼证据的解释). Another interpretation deadline has slipped by one year. A draft was distributed in 2016. Many new issues have arisen because of the prevalence of electronic evidence.
- Interpretation on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases of Civil Disputes over Food Safety (关于审理食品安全民事纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释). Responsibility of the #1 Civil Division. The deadline has slipped by one year. A draft was recently issued for public comment.
- Interpretation on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Labor Dispute Cases (V) (关于审理劳动争议案件适用法律若干问题的解释（五)). It likely dealing with some of the most pressing labor law issues facing the courts that are not covered by the preceding four interpretations or relevant legislation. The #1 Civil Division is in charge of drafting. Judge Xiao Feng of that division posted his slides from his lecture at the National Judges College earlier this year flagging the three principal issues in that draft. His slides provide an overview of those three issues: linking of labor arbitration with litigation; substantive law issues; procedural law issues. Substantive law issues include determining whether the parties are in a labor relationship; procedural issues include the burden of proof concerning overtime.
- Issues Concerning Civil and Commercial Disputes over Bank Cards (关于审理银行卡民商事纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释), Responsibility of the #2 Civil Division. Another interpretation that previously had a 2018 year-end deadline.
- Interpretation on Financial Asset Management Companies’ Acquisition, Management and Disposal of Non-performing Assets (关于审理金融资产管理公司收购、管理、处置不良资产案件适用法律若干问题的解释). The legal infrastructure related to non-performing assets is inadequate, as has been pointed out by all participants, including judges. The Shenzhen Intermediate Court has run several symposia bringing together leading experts from the market. Responsibility of the #2 Civil Division. Another interpretation that previously had a 2018 year-end deadline.
- Interpretation on Issues Relating to Internet Financial Disputes (civil aspects) (关于审理互联网金融纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释), as existing judicial interpretations inadequately address the issues facing the lower courts. Drafting this is a task for the #2 Civil Division. Another interpretation that previously had a 2018 year-end deadline.
- Company Law Interpretation (V) (关于适用《中华人民共和国公司法》若干问题的规定（五）) (Issued in late April, text found here, official commentary here).
- Extending the Time Limit for Trial & Postponing Hearing of Civil and Commercial Cases (关于严格规范民商事案件延长审限和延期开庭问题的规定), issued at the end of March, 2019.
- Interpretation of the Enterprise Bankruptcy Law (III), issued at the end of March, 2019, commentary by a leading global firm here and Chinese firm here.
- Intellectual Property Rights Evidence Rules (关于知识产权民事诉讼证据的若干规定). These rules are linked to a 2018 Party/State Council policy decision on the reform of intellectual property litigation, (II (1), mentioning disclosure of evidence, burden of proof, and destruction of evidence. have been on the SPC agenda for some time. From several conferences involving leading judges (in Shanghai and Chongqing), it is possible to understand judicial thinking on these issues. Responsibility of the #3 Civil Division.
- Judicial interpretation on administrative cases involving patent authorization and confirmation (关于审理专利授权确权行政案件若干问题的解释). It appears to be the counterpart in the patent area of a 2017 judicial interpretation relating to trademarks. Responsibility of the #3 Civil Division. Another interpretation that previously had a 2018 year-end deadline. A draft was issued for public comment in the summer of 2018. Comments by US trade organizations were submitted, among others.
- Interpretation on the Recognition and Enforcement of Civil and Commercial Judgments by Foreign Courts (关于受理申请承认和执行外国法院民商事判决案件若干问题的解释). Original deadline of first half of 2019. This issue has been flagged since at least 2014.
- Regulations on maritime labor service contracts (关于审理船员劳务合同纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释), likely connected with China’s accession to the 2006 Maritime Labor Convention and a large number of disputes in the maritime courts involving maritime labor service contracts. The linked report from the Ningbo Maritime Court mentions evidentiary problems and disputes involving foreign crew, among others. Responsibility of the #4 Civil Division.
- Scope of Acceptance of Environmental Resource Lawsuits (关于受理环境资源诉讼案件范围的规定). As is usual practice, local courts have issued guidance (link is to guidelines issued by the Chongqing Higher People’s Court) that is likely to provide information to the SPC. Responsibility of the Environmental and Natural Resources Division.
- Application of Law in the Trial of Cases of Compensation for Ecological Environmental Damage, issued in June, 2019. SPC press conference and model/typical cases released.
- Disputes over forestry rights, apparently an area with many disputes. Responsibility of the Environmental and Natural Resources Division. Original deadline was the first half of 2019.
- Provisions on Several Issues Concerning Administrative Compensation Cases (关于行政赔偿案件若干问题的规定). I have not seen reports on a draft, but see a recent case on issues concerning the calculation of direct losses has been posted. Responsibility of the Administrative Division.
- Regulations on responsible persons of administrative authorities responding to lawsuits, (关于行政机关负责人出庭应诉若干问题的规定), relating to new requirements in the amended Administrative Litigation Law. and the 2018 judicial interpretation of the Administrative Litigation Law. Responsibility of the Administrative Division. Original deadline of the first half of 2019.
- Regulations on the consolidated review of normative documents in administrative cases (关于审理规范性文件一并审理案件若干问题的规定). Responsibility of the Administrative Division. Original deadline of the first half of 2019.
- Regulations on the consolidated hearing of administrative and civil disputes (关于一并审理行政争议和民事争议若干问题的规定), apparently related to this item in a previous blogpost. Responsibility of the Administrative Division. Original deadline of the first half of 2019.
- Interpretation on procedures for the hearing of administrative cases (关于行政案件庭审程序若干问题的规定). Responsibility of the Administrative Division. Was mentioned in last year’s document.
- Interpretation related to agency issues in retrial (再审) cases. With the many governance problems of Chinese companies, these issues frequently arise. Drafting responsibility with the Judicial Supervision Division. Original deadline of end 2018.
- Interpretation relating to the enforcement of cases involving company shareholding. Given the complexities of shareholding in China, including the frequent use of nominee arrangements, these are difficult issues for judges to deal with. See a presentation by one of the circuit court judges on this issue. Responsibility of the Enforcement Bureau.
- Interpretation on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Criminal Cases Involving Organizing Cheating in Examinations, issued in early September, jointly with the Supreme People’s Procuratorate (SPP), to ensure the two institutions have harmonized approaches. The Research Office (which coordinates interactions with the SPP), was responsible.
- Interpretation on Issues Concerning the Trial of Criminal Cases Involving Crimes of Illegally Using an Information Network or Providing Aid for Criminal Activities in Relation to Information Network (link to the Chinalawtranslate.com translation), also a joint interpretation with the SPP, for which the Research Office was responsible;
- Personal information rights disputes judicial interpretation (审理个人信息权纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释), linked to the Civil Code being drafted. Implications for individuals and entities, domestic and foreign. Responsibility of the Research Office.
- Amending (i.e. updating) ()the 2001 Provisions of the Supreme People’s Court on Certain Issues Concerning Application of Urging and Supervision Procedure, relating to the enforcement of payment orders by creditors. Responsibility of the Research Office.
- Interpretation on cases involving both civil and criminal issues (关于办理民刑交叉案件适用法律若干问题的解释). This is a longstanding issue, and with the crackdown on the private lending sector, this has come to the fore. Among the many issues include: if the defendant is criminally prosecuted first and assets are confiscated, how can affected borrowers or other parties be compensated. Responsibility of the Research Office, likely involving several civil and criminal divisions. Originally with a 2018 year-end deadline.
I’d welcome comments by persons with further information about any of the above draft judicial interpretations.